Transcription and reverse transcription of artificial nucleic acids involving backbone modification by template-directed DNA polymerase reactions.

Abstract:

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) where the phosphodiester linkage had been replaced with an amide-type linker [-CH(2)C=ONH-] or an amine-type linker [-CH(2)CH(2)NH-] were synthesized to investigate the effect of these backbone modifications on polymerase reactions. In addition, a triphosphate analogue of thymidine dinucleotide with the amide-type linker was synthesized and enzymatic insertion of the amide linkage into ODN was attempted using this analogue for the polymerase reaction. Primer extension reactions using three types of thermostable DNA polymerases, KOD(exo-), Vent(exo-) and Taq were performed for the assays. Analysis of these data indicate that (i) the polymerase reaction tends to be affected much more by insertion of the cationic flexible amine-type linker than by insertion of the neutral rigid amide-type linker; (ii) the backbone modification has a greater effect on the polymerase reaction when it is adjacent to the 3'-end of a primer as the elongation terminus than when it is on the template, as well as in base or sugar modification; (iii) although the modified linker in the modified DNA template is passed beyond by the polymerase, it still affects the extension reaction several bases downstream from its location; (iv) the modified linker in the template, in some cases, also affects the extension reaction upstream from its location; (v) further improvement of the chemical structure is required for dinucleotide-mimic incorporation.

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