Human enhancer of rudimentary is a molecular partner of PDIP46/SKAR, a protein interacting with DNA polymerase delta and S6K1 and regulating cell growth.


Enhancer of rudimentary (ER) is a small protein that has a unique amino acid sequence and structure. Its highly conserved gene has been found in all eukaryotic kingdoms with the exception of fungi. ER was proposed to be involved in the metabolism of pyrimidines and was reported to act as a transcriptional repressor in a cell type-specific manner. To further elucidate ER functions, we performed the yeast two-hybrid screen of the human lung cDNA library for clones encoding proteins interacting with the human ER protein. The screen yielded polymerase delta interacting protein 46 or S6K1 Aly/REF-like target (PDIP46/SKAR), a protein possessing one RNA recognition motif (RRM) and being a protein partner of both the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). This interaction was further confirmed in vitro by the glutathione S-transferase-ER pull-down of a protein of 46 kDa from a nuclear extract from human cells which was identified as PDIP46/SKAR by tandem mass spectrometry. The bipartite region of PDIP46/SKAR interacting with ER comprising residues 274-421 encompasses the docking site for S6K1 within the RRM and two serines phosphorylated by S6K1. ER and both isoforms of PDIP46/SKAR share the same nuclear localization in the mammalian cells and their genes display a ubiquitous pattern of expression in a variety of human tissues, so the interaction between ER and PDIP46/SKAR has an opportunity to occur universally in mammalian cells. Because PDIP46/SKAR is involved in the regulation of cell growth its interaction with ER may suggest some function for ER in that control.




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