Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase requires the mammalian chaperone hsp90 for proper localization to the nucleus.


Many viruses and bacteriophage utilize chaperone systems for DNA replication and viral morphogenesis. We have previously shown that in the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cell nucleus, foci enriched in the Hsp70/Hsp40 chaperone machinery are formed adjacent to viral replication compartments (A. D. Burch and S. K. Weller, J. Virol. 78:7175-7185, 2004). These foci have now been named virus-induced chaperone-enriched (VICE) foci. Since the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is known to engage the Hsp70/Hsp40 system in eukaryotes, the subcellular localization of Hsp90 in HSV-1-infected cells was analyzed. Hsp90 is found within viral replication compartments as well as in the Hsp70/Hsp40-enriched foci. Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, results in decreased HSV-1 yields and blocks viral DNA synthesis. Furthermore, we have found that the viral DNA polymerase is mislocalized to the cytoplasm in both infected and transfected cells in the presence of geldanamycin. Additionally, in the presence of an Hsp90 inhibitor, proteasome-dependent degradation of the viral polymerase was detected by Western blot analysis. These data identify the HSV-1 polymerase as a putative client protein of the Hsp90 chaperone system. Perturbations in this association appear to result in degradation, aberrant folding, and/or intracellular localization of the viral polymerase.




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