The biochemical requirements of DNA polymerase V-mediated translesion synthesis revisited.


In addition to replicative DNA polymerases, cells contain specialized ...
In addition to replicative DNA polymerases, cells contain specialized DNA polymerases involved in processes such as lesion tolerance, mutagenesis and immunoglobulin diversity. In Escherichia coli, DNA polymerase V (Pol V), encoded by the umuDC locus, is involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) and mutagenesis. Genetic studies have established that mutagenesis requires both UmuC and a proteolytic product of UmuD (UmuD'). In addition, RecA protein and the replication processivity factor, the beta-clamp, were genetically found to be essential co-factors for mutagenesis. Here, we have reconstituted Pol V-mediated bypass of three common replication-blocking lesions, namely the two major UV-induced lesions and a guanine adduct formed by a chemical carcinogen (G-AAF) under conditions that fulfil these in vivo requirements. Two co-factors are essential for efficient Pol V-mediated lesion bypass: (i) a DNA substrate onto which the beta-clamp is stably loaded; and (ii) an extended single-stranded RecA/ATP filament assembled downstream from the lesion site. For efficient bypass, Pol V needs to interact simultaneously with the beta-clamp and the 3' tip of the RecA filament. Formation of an extended RecA/ATP filament and stable loading of the beta-clamp are best achieved on long single-stranded circular DNA templates. In contrast to previously published data, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) is not absolutely required for Pol V-mediated lesion bypass provided ATP, instead of ATPgammaS, activates the RecA filament. Further discrepancies with the existing literature are explainable by the use of either inadequate DNA substrates or a UmuC fusion protein instead of native Pol V.




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