A new highly efficient photoreactive analogue of dCTP. Synthesis, characterization, and application in photoaffinity modification of DNA binding proteins.

Abstract:

A new base-substituted analogue of dCTP, exo-N-{2-[N-(4-azido-2,5-difluoro-3-chloropyridine-6-yl)-3-aminopropionyl]aminoethyl}-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (FAP-dCTP) has been synthesized and characterized. FAP-dCTP is an efficient substrate of mammalian DNA polymerase beta in the reaction of primer elongation displaying substrate properties as an analogue of dCTP and dTTP. FAP-dCTP was used for the photoaffinity modification of mammalian DNA polymerase beta. Two approaches to photoaffinity labeling were utilized. In one approach, photoreactive FAP-dCTP was first incorporated into radiolabeled primer-template, and photoreactive DNA was UV-irradiated in the presence of DNA polymerase beta, which resulted in the polymerase labeling by photoreactive primer. In an alternate approach, FAP-dCTP was first UV-cross-linked to the enzyme; subsequently, radiolabeled primer-template was added, and the enzyme-linked FAP-dCTP was incorporated into the 3'-end of radioactive primer. This "catalytic" modification pathway was shown to be less specific in recognition of FAP-dCTP as an analogue of dCTP than dTTP. FAP-dCTP was used as substrate of endogenous DNA polymerases of HeLa cell extract to synthesize photoreactive DNAs for photoaffinity modification of cell proteins. UV irradiation results in modification of DNA binding proteins of cell extract. The level of photoaffinity labeling of protein targets in the cell extract was strongly dependent on the efficiency of synthesis of photoreactive DNA.

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