Interaction of PARP-2 with DNA structures mimicking DNA repair intermediates and consequences on activity of base excision repair proteins.

Abstract:

Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational protein modification significant for genomic stability and cell survival in response to DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs). Among the 17 members of the PARP family, PARP-1 and PARP-2 are described as enzymes whose catalytic activity is stimulated by some types of DNA damages. Whereas the role of PARP-1 in response to DNA damage has been widely illustrated, the contribution of another DNA-dependent PARP, PARP-2, is less documented. To find out specific DNA targets of PARP-2 we evaluated by EMSA K(d) values of PARP-2-DNA complexes for several DNA structures mimicking intermediates of different DNA metabolizing processes. In addition, we tested these DNA as activators of PARP-1 and PARP-2 in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis. Like PARP-1, PARP-2 doesn't show correlation between activation efficiency and K(d) values for DNA. PARP-2 displayed the highest affinity for flap-containing DNA, but was more efficiently activated by 5'-overhang DNA. Evaluating the influence of PARP-1 and PARP-2 on DNA repair synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase β revealed that both PARPs inhibit DNA polymerase β activity. However, unlike PARP-1, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP-2 does not result in restoration of DNA synthesis efficiency. Similarly, both PARPs proteins inhibited FEN1 activity, but only activation of PARP-1, not PARP-2, could restore FEN1 activity, and only when PARP-2 was not present. Taken together, our data show that PARP-2 can directly regulate BER proteins but also can modulate the influence of PARP-1 on these BER proteins, by decreasing its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity.

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