Modulation of oxidative mutagenesis and carcinogenesis by polymorphic forms of human DNA repair enzymes.


Chromosome DNA is continuously exposed to various endogenous and exogenous mutagens. Among them, oxidation is one of the most common threats to genetic stability, and multiple DNA repair enzymes protect chromosome DNA from the oxidative damage. In Escherichia coli, three repair enzymes synergistically reduce the mutagenicity of oxidized base 8-hydroxy-guanine (8-OH-G). MutM DNA glycosylase excises 8-OH-G from 8-OH-G:C pairs in DNA and MutY DNA glycosylase removes adenine incorporated opposite template 8-OH-G during DNA replication. MutT hydrolyzes 8-OH-dGTP to 8-OH-dGMP in dNTP pool, thereby reducing the chance of misincorporation of 8-OH-dGTP by DNA polymerases. Simultaneous inactivation of MutM and MutY dramatically increases the frequency of spontaneous G:C to T:A mutations, and the deficiency of MutT leads to the enhancement of T:A to G:C transversions more than 1000-fold over the control level. In humans, the functional homologues of MutM, MutY and MutT, i.e., OGG1, MUTYH (MYH) and MTH1, contribute to the protection of genomic DNA from oxidative stress. Interestingly, several polymorphic forms of these proteins exist in human populations, and some of them are suggested to be associated with cancer susceptibility. Here, we review the polymorphic forms of OGG1, MUTYH and MTH1 involved in repair of 8-OH-G and 8-OH-dGTP, and discuss the significance of the polymorphisms in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We also summarize the polymorphic forms of human DNA polymerase eta, which may be involved in damage tolerance and mutagenesis induced by oxidative stress.





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