DNA footprinting studies of the complex formed by the T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme at a primer-template junction.


We have used DNA footprinting techniques to analyze the interactions of five DNA replication proteins at a primer-template junction: the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (the gene 43 protein), its three accessory proteins (the gene 44/62 and 45 proteins), and the gene 32 protein, which is the T4 helix-destabilizing (or single-stranded DNA-binding) protein. The 177-nucleotide-long DNA substrate consisted of a perfect 52-base pair hairpin helix with a protruding single-stranded 5' tail. As expected, the DNA polymerase binds near the 3' end of this molecule (at the primer-template junction) and protects the adjacent double-stranded region from cleavage. When the gene 32 protein binds to the single-stranded tail, it reduces the concentration of the DNA polymerase required to observe the polymerase footprint by 10-30-fold. Periodic ATP hydrolysis by the 44/62 protein is required to maintain the activity of the DNA polymerase holoenzyme (a complex of the 43, 44/62, and 45 proteins). Footprinting experiments demonstrate the formation of a weak complex between the DNA polymerase and the gene 45 protein, but there is no effect of the 44/62 protein or ATP on this enlarged footprint. We propose a model for holoenzyme function in which the complex of the three accessory proteins uses ATP hydrolysis to keep a moving polymerase tightly bound to the growing 3' end, providing a "clock" to measure polymerase stalling.




Biotech Applications, Structure and Structure/Function, Accessory Proteins/Complexes, Nucleotide Incorporation, Enzyme Substrate Interactions

One line summary:

Analysis of T4 DNA polymerase (gp 43) and gp 44/62, gp 45 (T4 DNA replication accessory proteins), and gp 32 (T4 helix destabilizing protein) by DNA footprinting.


new topics/pols set partial results complete validated


No results available for this paper.

Entry validated by:

Log in to edit reference All References

Using Polbase tables:


Tables may be sorted by clicking on any of the column titles. A second click reverses the sort order. <Ctrl> + click on the column titles to sort by more than one column (e.g. family then name).


It is also possible to filter the table by typing into the search box above the table. This will instantly hide lines from the table that do not contain your search text.