Association between the herpes simplex virus-1 DNA polymerase and uracil DNA glycosylase.

Abstract:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that encodes its own DNA replication machinery and other enzymes involved in DNA transactions. We recently reported that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (UL30) exhibits apurinic/apyrimidinic and 5'-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activities. Moreover, UL30, in conjunction with the viral uracil DNA glycosylase (UL2), cellular apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, and DNA ligase IIIalpha-XRCC1, performs uracil-initiated base excision repair. Base excision repair is required to maintain genome stability as a means to counter the accumulation of unusual bases and to protect from the loss of DNA bases. Here we show that the HSV-1 UL2 associates with the viral replisome. We identified UL2 as a protein that co-purifies with the DNA polymerase through numerous chromatographic steps, an interaction that was verified by co-immunoprecipitation and direct binding studies. The interaction between UL2 and the DNA polymerase is mediated through the UL30 subunit. Moreover, UL2 co-localizes with UL30 to nuclear viral prereplicative sites. The functional consequence of this interaction is that replication of uracil-containing templates stalls at positions -1 and -2 relative to the template uracil because of the fact that these are converted into non-instructional abasic sites. These findings support the existence of a viral repair complex that may be capable of replication-coupled base excision repair and further highlight the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of the HSV-1 genome.

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