Increased catalytic activity and altered fidelity of human DNA polymerase iota in the presence of manganese.

Abstract:

All DNA polymerases require a divalent cation for catalytic activity. It is generally assumed that Mg(2+) is the physiological cofactor for replicative DNA polymerases in vivo. However, recent studies suggest that certain repair polymerases, such as pol lambda, may preferentially utilize Mn(2+) in vitro. Here we report on the effects of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) on the enzymatic properties of human DNA polymerase iota (pol iota). pol iota exhibited the greatest activity in the presence of low levels of Mn(2+) (0.05-0.25 mm). Peak activity in the presence of Mg(2+) was observed in the range of 0.1-0.5 mm and was significantly reduced at concentrations >2 mm. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that Mn(2+) increases the catalytic activity of pol iota by approximately 30-60,000-fold through a dramatic decrease in the K(m) value for nucleotide incorporation. Interestingly, whereas pol iota preferentially misinserts G opposite T by a factor of approximately 1.4-2.5-fold over the correct base A in the presence of 0.25 and 5 mm Mg(2+), respectively, the correct insertion of A is actually favored 2-fold over the misincorporation of G in the presence of 0.075 mm Mn(2+). Low levels of Mn(2+) also dramatically increased the ability of pol iota to traverse a variety of DNA lesions in vitro. Titration experiments revealed a strong preference of pol iota for Mn(2+) even when Mg(2+) is present in a >10-fold excess. Our observations therefore raise the intriguing possibility that the cation utilized by pol iota in vivo may actually be Mn(2+) rather than Mg(2+), as tacitly assumed.

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