The highly processive DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T5. Role of the unique N and C termini.


The DNA polymerase encoded by bacteriophage T5 has been reported ...
The DNA polymerase encoded by bacteriophage T5 has been reported previously to be processive and to catalyze extensive strand displacement synthesis. The enzyme, purified from phage-infected cells, did not require accessory proteins for these activities. Although T5 DNA polymerase shares extensive sequence homology with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and T7 DNA polymerase, it contains unique regions of 130 and 71 residues at its N and C termini, respectively. We cloned the gene encoding wild-type T5 DNA polymerase and characterized the overproduced protein. We also examined the effect of N- and C-terminal deletions on processivity and strand displacement synthesis. T5 DNA polymerase lacking its N-terminal 30 residues resembled the wild-type enzyme albeit with a 2-fold reduction in polymerase activity. Deletion of 24 residues at the C terminus resulted in a 30-fold reduction in polymerase activity on primed circular DNA, had dramatically reduced processivity, and was unable to carry out strand displacement synthesis. Deletion of 63 residues at the C terminus resulted in a 20,000-fold reduction in polymerase activity. The 3' to 5' double-stranded DNA exonuclease activity associated with T5 DNA polymerase was reduced by a factor of 5 in the polymerase truncated at the N terminus but was stimulated by a factor of 7 in the polymerase truncated at the C terminus. We propose a model in which the C terminus increases the affinity of the DNA for the polymerase active site, thus increasing processivity and decreasing the accessibility of the DNA to the exonuclease active site.




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