Isothermal in vitro amplification of DNA by a restriction enzyme/DNA polymerase system.

Abstract:

An isothermal in vitro DNA amplification method was developed based upon the following sequence of reaction events. Restriction enzyme cleavage and subsequent heat denaturation of a DNA sample generates two single-stranded target DNA fragments (T1 and T2). Present in excess are two DNA amplification primers (P1 and P2). The 3' end of P1 binds to the 3' end of T1, forming a duplex with 5' overhangs. Likewise, P2 binds to T2. The 5' overhangs of P1 and P2 contain a recognition sequence (5'-GTTGAC-3') for the restriction enzyme HincII. An exonuclease-deficient form of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (exo- Klenow polymerase) [Derbyshire, V., Freemont, P. S., Sanderson, M. R., Beese, L., Friedman, J. M., Joyce, C. M. & Steitz, T. A. (1988) Science 240, 199-201] extends the 3' ends of the duplexes using dGTP, dCTP, TTP, and deoxyadenosine 5'-[alpha-thio]triphosphate, which produces hemiphosphorothioate recognition sites on P1.T1 and P2.T2. HincII nicks the unprotected primer strands of the hemiphosphorothioate recognition sites, leaving intact the modified complementary strands. The exo- Klenow polymerase extends the 3' end at the nick on P1.T1 and displaces the downstream strand that is functionally equivalent to T2. Likewise, extension at the nick on P2.T2 results in displacement of a downstream strand functionally equivalent to T1. Nicking and polymerization/displacement steps cycle continuously on P1.T1 and P2.T2 because extension at a nick regenerates a nickable HincII recognition site. Target amplification is exponential because strands displaced from P1.T1 serve as targets for P2 and strands displaced from P2.T2 serve as targets for P1. A 10(6)-fold amplification of a genomic sequence from Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis was achieved in 4 h at 37 degrees C.

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