Contribution of 3' leads to 5' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme from Escherichia coli to specificity.

Abstract:

The effects of deoxynucleoside monophosphates on the 3' leads to 5' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme have been correlated with their effects on the fidelity of DNA replication. In particular, dGMP inhibits the proofreading activity of the enzyme and decreases the fidelity in those cases where a "following nucleotide effect" is also noted. This is strong evidence for proofreading. However, the absence of the effects of proofreading inhibitors or following nucleotides need not be evidence against the occurrence of proofreading: a theoretical analysis shows that these effects may not be observed even though there is active proofreading. This is suggested to be the case with the phage T4 enzyme system. The proofreading activity of Pol III appears to be directed primarily towards removing purine x pyrimidine-mediated rather than purine x purine-mediated misincorporations. recA protein inhibits the proofreading activity of Pol III on synthetic templates containing mismatched 3' termini. This is paralleled by a decrease in the fidelity of DNA replication in vitro. The inhibition is increased in the presence of dGMP or dAMP but there is no further increase in the infidelity of replication. The presence of both dNMPs and recA protein does not enable Pol III to copy past pyrimidine photodimers.

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