Protected immobilization of Taq DNA polymerase by active site masking on self-assembled monolayers of ω-functionalized thiols.

Abstract:

A new efficient immobilization method that enables oriented immobilization of biologically active proteins was developed based on concepts of active site masking and kinetic control. Taq DNA polymerase was immobilized covalently on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ω-carboxylated thiol and ω-hydroxylated thiol through amide bonds between the protein and the carboxyl group in SAMs. Activity of the immobilized enzyme as large as 70% of solution-phase enzyme was achieved by masking the active site of the Taq DNA polymerase prior to the immobilization. In addition, the number of immobilization bonds was controlled by optimizing the carboxyl group concentration in the mixed monolayer. The maximum activity of immobilized Taq DNA polymerase was achieved at 5% of 12-mercaptododecanoic acid. The activity observed with protected immobilized enzyme was approximately 20 times higher than that observed with randomly immobilized enzyme. The maximum activity was acquired at a 1:1 DNA/enzyme masking ratio, immobilization pH 8.3, and within 10 min of reaction time. This concept of the active site masking and kinetic control of the number of covalent bonds between proteins and the surface can be generally applicable to a broad range of proteins to be immobilized on the solid surface with higher activity.

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