Identification of CFDD (common regulatory factor for DNA replication and DREF genes) and role of its binding site in regulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene promoter.


The Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter ...
The Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter contains at least three transcriptional regulatory elements, the URE (upstream regulatory element), DRE (DNA replication-related element), and E2F recognition sites. In nuclear extracts of Drosophila Kc cells, we detected a novel protein factor(s), CFDD (common regulatory factor for DNA replication and DREF genes) that appeared to recognize two unique nucleotide sequences (5'-CGATA and 5'-CAATCA) and bind to three sites in the PCNA gene promoter. These sites were located at positions -84 to -77 (site 1), -100 to -93 (site 2) and -134 to -127 (site 3) with respect to the transcription initiation sites. Sites 2 and 3 overlapped with DRE and URE, respectively, and the 5'-CGATA matched with the reported recognition sequence of BEAF-32 (boundary element-associated factor of 32 kDa). Detailed analyses of CFDD recognition sequences and experiments with specific antibodies to DREF (DRE-binding factor) and BEAF-32 suggest that CFDD is different from DREF, UREF (URE-binding factor) and BEAF-32. A UV cross-linking experiment revealed that polypeptides of approximately 76 kDa in the nuclear extract interact directly with the CFDD site 1 sequence. Transient expression assays of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in Kc cells transfected with PCNA promoter-CAT fusion genes carrying mutations in CFDD site 1 and examination of lacZ expression from PCNA promoter-lacZ fusion genes carrying mutations in site 1, introduced into flies by germ line transformation, revealed that CFDD site 1 plays an important role for the promoter activity both in cultured cells and in living flies. In addition to the PCNA gene, multiple CFDD sites were found in promoters of the DNA polymerase alpha and DREF genes, and CFDD binding to the DREF promoter was confirmed. Therefore, CFDD may play important roles in regulation of Drosophila DNA replication-related genes.




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