Substrate and DNA binding to a 50-residue peptide fragment of DNA polymerase I. Comparison with the enzyme.

Abstract:

The fluorescent nucleotide 2',3'-trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP) binds at the triphosphate substrate binding site of the large (Klenow) fragment of DNA polymerase I (Pol I) as detected by direct binding studies measuring the increase in fluorescence of this ligand (n = 1.0, KD = 0.07 microM). The enzyme-TNP-ATP complex binds Mg2+ and Mn2+ tightly (KD = 0.05 microM) as measured by an increase in fluorescence on titrating with these metals. The substrate dGTP competitively displaces TNP-ATP from the enzyme (KD = 5.7 microM) de-enhancing the fluorescence. The polymerase reaction is half-maximally inhibited by 0.8 microM TNP-ATP in the presence of dATP (10 microM) as substrate. A region of the amino acid sequence of Pol I (peptide I) consisting of residues 728-777 has been synthesized and found to contain significant secondary structure by CD both in water and 50% methanol/water. In water at 3 degrees C, peptide I binds the substrate analog TNP-ATP (KD = 0.03 microM) with a stoichiometry of 0.2. In 50% methanol at 3 degrees C, peptide I binds TNP-ATP with a higher stoichiometry than in water, consistent with a 1:1 complex, but biphasically (16% of the peptide, KD = 0.09 microM; 84% of the peptide, KD = 5.0 microM), and competitively binds the Pol I substrates dATP, TTP, and dGTP (KD = 230-570 microM). Evidence from size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography suggests that these two forms of the peptide are monomer and dimer, respectively. Significantly, the peptide I-TNP-ATP complex binds duplex DNA, tightly (KD = 0.1-0.5 microM) and stoichiometrically, and single stranded DNA more weakly. The peptide I-duplex DNA complex binds both TNP-ATP (KD = 0.5-1.5 microM) and Pol I substrates (KD = 350-2100 microM) stoichiometrically. In a control experiment, a second peptide, peptide II, based on residues 840-888 of the Pol I sequence, retains secondary structure, as detected by CD, but displays no binding of TNP-ATP. The ability of peptide I, which represents only 8% of the large fragment of Pol I, to bind both substrates and duplex DNA indicates that residues 728-777 constitute a major portion of the substrate binding site of this enzyme.

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