The checkpoint clamp, Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, preferentially stimulates the activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase beta in long patch base excision repair.

Abstract:

Growing evidence suggests that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (the 9-1-1 complex), besides its functions in DNA damage sensing and signaling pathways, plays also a direct role in various DNA repair processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the 9-1-1 complex physically and functionally interacts with several components of the base excision repair (BER) machinery namely DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta), flap endonuclease 1 (Fen 1), DNA ligase I (Lig I) and the MutY homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, we found for the first time that the 9-1-1 complex interacts in vitro and in vivo with the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE 1), an early component of BER, and can stimulate its AP-endonuclease activity. Moreover, we show that the 9-1-1 complex possesses a stimulatory effect on long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) reconstituted in vitro. The enhancement of LP-BER activity is due to the specific stimulation of the two early components of the repair machinery, namely APE 1 and Pol beta, suggesting a hierarchy of interactions between the 9-1-1 complex and the BER proteins acting in the repairosome. Overall, our results indicate that the 9-1-1 complex is directly involved in LP-BER, thus providing a possible link between DNA damage checkpoints and BER.

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