Effect of the oxidized guanosine lesions spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin on proofreading by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) in different sequence contexts.

Abstract:

Oxidative damage to DNA by endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species has been directly linked to cancer, aging, and a variety of neurological disorders. The potential mutagenicity of the primary guanine oxidation product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (Og) has been studied intensively, and much information is available about its miscoding potential in vitro and in vivo. Recently, a variety of DNA lesions have been identified as oxidation products of both guanine and 8-oxoguanine, among them spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh). To address questions concerning the mutagenic potential of these secondary products of guanine oxidation, the effect of the lesions on proofreading by DNA polymerase was studied in vitro using the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli polymerase I (Kf exo+). For the first time, k(cat)/K(m) values were obtained for proofreading of the X:N mismatches (X = Og, Gh, or Sp; N = A, G, or C). Proofreading studies of the terminal mismatches demonstrated the significance of the sequence context flanking the lesion on the 3' side. In addition, a sequence dependence was observed for Gh based on the identity of the base on the 5' side of the lesion providing evidence for a primer slippage mode if N was complementary to the 5' base. Internal mismatches were recognized by Kf exo+ resulting in the excision of the correct base pairs flanking mismatches from the 5' side. The absence of a sequence effect for the Gh- and Sp-containing duplexes can be attributed to the severe destabilization of the lesion-containing duplexes that promotes interaction with the exonuclease domain of the Klenow fragment.

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