Motif A of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase: role in primer extension and DNA replication fidelity. Isolation of new antimutator and mutator DNA polymerases.

Abstract:

Polymerases in general share only a few regions of amino acid similarity. One of the most conserved regions, called motif A, has the sequence DXXSLYPSII or a similar sequence in many eukaryotic and viral DNA polymerases and in bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. We designed genetic techniques to isolate mutant T4 DNA polymerases with amino acid substitutions in this highly conserved motif. The mutant DNA polymerases differed from wild type T4 DNA polymerase in several ways. For one mutant DNA polymerase, the pyrophosphate analog, phosphonoacetic acid, was a potent inhibitor of DNA replication, and this mutant DNA polymerase replicated DNA with reduced fidelity. Another mutant DNA polymerase replicated DNA with increased accuracy, but this mutant DNA polymerase was less processive in primer extension reactions, and DNA replication required high concentrations of deoxynucleoside triphosphates. We provide evidence that indicates that all of these changes to DNA polymerase function are due to differences in how the mutant DNA polymerases partition between states active for DNA replication or exonucleolytic proofreading. These studies also provide further support for the hypothesis that the accuracy of DNA replication observed for DNA polymerases and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities (Muzyczka, N., Poland, R. L., and Bessman, M. J. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7116-7122).

Polymerases:

Topics:

Mutational Analysis, Structure and Structure/Function, Fidelity, Nucleotide Incorporation, Exonuclease Activity

One line summary:

Amino acid substitutions in motif A of T4 DNA polymerase cause differences in how the enzyme partitions between replication and proofreading, evidence supporting that DNA replication fidelity depends on the interplay between polymerase and exonuclease activities.

Status:

new topics/pols set partial results complete validated

Results:

Polymerase Reference Property Result Context
T4 I417V Reha-Krantz LJ1994 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.004 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay
T4 L412MI417V Reha-Krantz LJ1994 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.025 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay
T4 L412M Reha-Krantz LJ1994 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 9.2 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay
T4 L412I Reha-Krantz LJ1994 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.09 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay
T4 S411TL412M Reha-Krantz LJ1994 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.06 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) Technique: T4 rII 199oc reversion assay

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