HIV-1 resistance profile of the novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor beta-D-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-5-fluorocytidine (Reverset).

Abstract:

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) represent the cornerstone of highly active antiretroviral therapy when combined with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) or HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). Unlike the NNRTIs and PIs, NRTIs must be successively phosphorylated by cellular kinases to a triphosphate form, which represents the active metabolite possessing antiviral activity. Emergence of viral resistance to NRTIs has severely hampered treatment options for persons infected with HIV-1. As such, there is an urgent need to develop NRTIs capable of suppressing NRTI-resistant strains of HIV-1. We have recently reported that the cytidine analogue D-d4FC (DPC817, Reverset) effectively inhibits clinically prevalent resistant strains of HIV-1. In this report, we have extended these findings and now describe a detailed resistance profile for this novel NRTI. By examining a panel of 50 viruses carrying RTs derived from HIV-1 clinical isolates displaying a wide range of NRTI resistance mutations, we report that the median fold increase in effective antiviral concentration for such a panel of viruses is 3.2, which is comparable to tenofovir (2.8-fold) and didanosine (2.4-fold). D-d4FC is highly effective at inhibiting subsets of lamivudine- and zidovudine-resistant variants but, like other NRTIs, seems less potent against multi-NRTI-resistant viruses, particularly those carrying the Q151M complex of mutations. Finally, in vitro selections for HIV-1 mutants capable of replicating in the presence of D-d4FC yielded a mutant carrying the RT K65R mutation. This mutation confers 5.3- to 8.7-fold resistance to D-d4FC in vitro. These findings suggest that D-d4FC may represent an alternative NRTI for the treatment of individuals infected with lamivudine- and zidovudine-resistant strains of HIV-1.

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