Solution structures of 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 DNA polymerase-DNA complexes probed by ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering.

Abstract:

We report small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and sedimentation velocity (SV) studies on the enzyme-DNA complexes of rat DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X (ASFV Pol X) with one-nucleotide gapped DNA. The results indicated formation of a 2 : 1 Pol beta-DNA complex, whereas only 1 : 1 Pol X-DNA complex was observed. Three-dimensional structural models for the 2 : 1 Pol beta-DNA and 1 : 1 Pol X-DNA complexes were generated from the SAXS experimental data to correlate with the functions of the DNA polymerases. The former indicates interactions of the 8 kDa 5'-dRP lyase domain of the second Pol beta molecule with the active site of the 1 : 1 Pol beta-DNA complex, while the latter demonstrates how ASFV Pol X binds DNA in the absence of DNA-binding motif(s). As ASFV Pol X has no 5'-dRP lyase domain, it is reasonable not to form a 2 : 1 complex. Based on the enhanced activities of the 2 : 1 complex and the observation that the 8 kDa domain is not in an optimal configuration for the 5'-dRP lyase reaction in the crystal structures of the closed ternary enzyme-DNA-dNTP complexes, we propose that the asymmetric 2 : 1 Pol beta-DNA complex enhances the function of Pol beta.

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