Design of structure-based reverse transcriptase inhibitors.


Based on the crystallographic structure of the active site in the ...
Based on the crystallographic structure of the active site in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a group of hydrophobic polyadenylic acid (5') derivatives were designed and synthesized as inhibitors of the enzyme. These compounds were found to inhibit all six of the RTs tested, with IC50 = 10(-11)-10(-8) M, but did not inhibit either RNA polymerase II (even at 10(-5) M) or DNA polymerase I up to 10(-6) M inhibitor concentration. The underivatized poly(A) did not inhibit any of the RTs tested under the same conditions. In aqueous solutions of purified HIV-1 RT, poly-2'-O-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-oligo(A) was found to inhibit the enzyme reversibly and compete with the primer-template poly(A)-(dT)12, whereas poly-2'-O-(3-fluoro-4,6-dinitrophenyl)-poly(A) was found to inactivate HIV-1 RT irreversibly by covalent labeling. A comparison of physicochemical properties of the hybrids poly(A)-poly(dT) and dinitrophenyl-poly(A)-poly(dT) shows that the hydrophobic dinitrophenyl groups stabilize double helical structures. These inhibitors were also found to be effective in keeping susceptible lymphocytes viable in the presence of HIV-1 (wild type). The effective inhibitor concentrations (EC50) were found to be 0.2-2.6 microgram/ml. No toxic effect on the host cells was found even at 100-1000-fold higher inhibitor concentrations.




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