Structures of DNA and RNA polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acid substrates.


DNA and RNA polymerases are enzymes that are primarily responsible for copying genetic material in all living systems. The four polymerases whose structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods have significant similarities at the polymerase active site that are indicative of common requirements for polynucleotide synthesis. Structural studies of complexes of the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase, and rat DNA polymerase beta with DNA are leading to generalized models for catalysis.




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