Kinetics of inhibition of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase-bearing NRTI-associated mutations by apricitabine triphosphate.

Abstract:

We wished to investigate the effects of various mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) on biochemical inhibition by the active form of a novel nucleoside termed apricitabine. Accordingly, we studied the efficiency of chain-termination mediated by apricitabine triphosphate (TP) in cell-free assays that used either recombinant wild-type or mutated RTs. We also performed steady-state-kinetics and primer-unblocking assays. Subtype C RTs were also analysed. The results showed that the K65R mutation in RT caused reductions in the efficiency of chain-termination of apricitabine-TP by increasing its Ki. However, K65R did not affect rates of primer unblocking for apricitabine-TP. No significant differences were found between subtype C and subtype B RTs with regard to any of the parameters studied. Other mutations such as M184V, L74V and K103N had no effect on the efficiency of chain termination by apricitabine-TP. Thus, the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to apricitabine of viruses containing K65R in RT seems to be mediated exclusively through a reduction in binding or incorporation of apricitabine-TP. Unlike some other nucleoside analogues, increased excision of incorporated apricitabine does not seem to be a cause of resistance to apricitabine.

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