Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs.


The inhibitory effects of polyanionic substances on the replication of ...
The inhibitory effects of polyanionic substances on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other viruses were reported almost four decades ago. However, these observations did not generate much interest, because the antiviral action of the compounds was considered to be largely nonspecific. Shortly after the identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984, heparin and other sulfated polysaccharides were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Since 1988, the activity spectrum of the sulfated polysaccharides has been shown to extend to various enveloped viruses, including viruses that emerge as opportunistic pathogens (e.g., herpes simplex virus [HSV] and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) in immunosuppressed (e.g., AIDS) patients. As potential anti-HIV drug candidates, sulfated polysaccharides offer a number of promising features. They are able to block HIV replication in cell culture at concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.01 microgram ml-1 without toxicity to the host cells at concentrations up to 2.5 mg ml-1. We noted that some polysulfates show a differential inhibitory activity against different HIV strains, suggesting that marked differences exist in the target molecules with which polysulfates interact. They not only inhibit the cytopathic effect of HIV, but also prevent HIV-induced syncytium (giant cell) formation. Furthermore, experiments carried out with dextran sulfate samples of increasing molecular weight and with sulfated cyclodextrins of different degrees of sulfation have shown that antiviral activity increases with increasing molecular weight and degree of sulfation. A sugar backbone is not strictly needed for the anti-HIV activity of polysulfates because sulfated polymers composed of a carbon-carbon backbone have also proved to be highly efficient anti-HIV agents in vitro. Other, yet to be defined, structural features may also play an important role. Sulfated polysaccharides may act synergistically with other anti-HIV drugs (e.g., azidothymidine [AZT]). They are known to lead very slowly to virus-drug resistance development and they show activity against HIV mutants that have become resistant to reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, tetrahydro-imidazo [4,5,l-jk] [1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-thione (TIBO) and others. From studies on their mechanism of action we concluded that polysulfates exert their anti-HIV activity by shielding off the positively charged sites in the V3 loop of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp120). The V3 loop is necessary for virus attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate, a primary binding site, before more specific binding occurs to the CD4 receptor of CD4+ cells. This general mechanism also explains the broad antiviral activity of polysulfates against enveloped viruses. Variations in the viral envelope glycoprotein region may result in differences in the susceptibility of different enveloped viruses to compounds that interact with their envelope glycoproteins. The efficacy of polysulfates in the therapy and/or prophylaxis of retroviral infections and opportunistic infections remains to be demonstrated both in animal models and humans. It is important to consider not only treatment of patients who are already infected with HIV, but also prophylaxis and protection from HIV and/or other virus infections. Because (i) sexual transmission is responsible for the large majority of HIV infections worldwide; (ii) this transmission is mostly mediated via mononuclear cells that infect epithelial cells of the genital tract; and because (iii) polysulfates effectively inhibit cell-cell adhesion, polysulfates may be considered as potentially effective in a vaginal formulation to protect against HIV infection.




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