Clinical and Molecular Features of POLG-Related Mitochondrial Disease.

Abstract:

The inability to replicate mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol γ) leads to a subset of mitochondrial diseases. Many mutations in POLG, the gene that encodes pol γ, have been associated with mitochondrial diseases such as myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) disorders, Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA), ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS), and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). This chapter explores five important topics in POLG-related disease: (1) clinical symptoms that identify and distinguish POLG-related diseases, (2) molecular characterization of defects in polymerase activity by POLG disease variants, (3) the importance of holoenzyme formation in disease presentation, (4) the role of pol γ exonuclease activity and mutagenesis in disease and aging, and (5) novel approaches to therapy and avoidance of toxicity based on primary research in pol γ replication.

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