Rapid segmental and subdomain motions of DNA polymerase beta.


DNA polymerase (pol) beta is a two-domain DNA repair enzyme that undergoes structural transitions upon binding substrates. Crystallographic structures indicate that these transitions include movement of the amino-terminal 8-kDa lyase domain relative to the 31-kDa polymerase domain. Additionally, a polymerase subdomain moves toward the nucleotide-binding pocket after nucleotide binding, resulting in critical contacts between alpha-helix N and the nascent base pair. Kinetic and structural characterization of pol beta has suggested that these conformational changes participate in stabilizing the ternary enzyme-substrate complex facilitating chemistry. To probe the microenvironment and dynamics of both the lyase domain and alpha-helix N in the polymerase domain, the single native tryptophan (Trp-325) of wild-type enzyme was replaced with alanine, and tryptophan was strategically substituted for residues in the lyase domain (F25W/W325A) or near the end of alpha-helix N (L287W/W325A). Influences of substrate on the fluorescence anisotropy decay of these single tryptophan forms of pol beta were determined. The results revealed that the segmental motion of alpha-helix N was rapid ( approximately 1 ns) and far more rapid than the step that limits chemistry. Binding of Mg(2+) and/or gapped DNA did not cause a noticeable change in the rotational correlation time or angular amplitude of tryptophan in alpha-helix N. More important, binding of a correct nucleotide significantly limited the angular range of the nanosecond motion within alpha-helix N. In contrast, the segmental motion of the 8-kDa domain was "frozen" upon DNA binding alone, and this restriction did not increase further upon nucleotide binding. The dynamics of alpha-helix N are discussed from the perspective of the "open" to "closed" conformational change of pol beta deduced from crystallography, and the results are more generally discussed in the context of reaction cycle-regulated flexibility for proteins acting as molecular motors.



Kinetic Parameters, Mutational Analysis, Historical Protein Properties (MW, pI, ...), Other Enzymatic Activities


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