Structure-activity relationship of a novel group of mammalian DNA polymerase inhibitors, synthetic sulfoquinovosylacylglycerols.

Abstract:

We reported previously that sulfolipids in the sulfoquinovosylacylglycerol class from a fern and an alga are potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha and beta and potent anti-neoplastic agents. In developing a procedure for chemical synthesis of sulfolipids, we synthesized many derivatives and stereoisomers of sulfoquinovosylmonoacylglycerol (SQMG) / sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Some of these molecules were stronger inhibitors than the SQMG / SQDG originally reported as natural compounds. In this study, we examined the structure-inhibitory function relationship of synthetic SQMG / SQDG and its relationship to cytotoxic activity. The inhibitory effect is probably mainly dependent on the fatty acid effect, which we reported previously, although each of the SQMG / SQDG was a much stronger inhibitor than the fatty acid alone that was present in the SQMG / SQDG. The inhibitory effect could be influenced by the chain size of fatty acids in the SQMG / SQDG. The sulfate moiety in the quinovose was also important for the inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots of SQMG / SQDG indicated that DNA polymerase alpha was non-competitively inhibited, but the SQMG / SQDG were effective as antagonists of both template-primer DNA-binding and nucleotide substrate-binding of DNA polymerase beta. The SQMG had an cytotoxic effect, but the SQDG tested did not. The SQDG might not be able to penetrate into cells. Based on these results, we discuss the molecular action of SQMG / SQDG and propose drug design strategies for developing new anti-neoplastic agents.

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