Inhibition of the ribonuclease H and DNA polymerase activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by N-(4-tert-butylbenzoyl)-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde hydrazone.

Abstract:

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is multifunctional, with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP), DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (DDDP), and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities. N-(4-tert-Butylbenzoyl)-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde hydrazone (BBNH) inhibited both the polymerase and the RNase H activities of HIV-1 RT in vitro. IC50 values for inhibition of RDDP were 0.8-3.4 microM, depending on the template/primer (T/P) used in the assay. The IC50 for DDDP inhibition was about 12 microM, while that for inhibition of RNase H was 3.5 microM. EC50 for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.5 microM. BBNH inhibition of RNase H in vitro was time-dependent, whereas inhibition of RT polymerase activities was immediate. BBNH was a linear mixed-type inhibitor of RT RDDP activity with respect to both T/P and to dNTP, whereas BBNH inhibition of RT RNase H activity was linear competitive. Protection experiments using an azidonevirapine photolabel showed that BBNH binds to the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) binding pocket. Importantly, the compound inhibited recombinant RT containing mutations associated with high-level resistance to other NNRTI. While BBNH did not inhibit the DNA polymerase activities of other retroviral reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases, the compound inhibited Escherichia coli RNase HI and the RNase H activity of murine leukemia virus RT. BBNH also inhibited HIV-1 RT RNase H in the presence of high concentrations of other non-nucleoside inhibitors with higher affinities for the NNRTI binding pocket, and of RT in which the NNRTI binding pocket had been irreversibly blocked by the azidonevirapine photolabel. We conclude that BBNH may therefore bind to two sites on HIV-1 RT. One site is the polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor binding site and the second may be located in the RNase H domain. BBNH is therefore a promising lead compound for the development of multisite inhibitors of HIV-1 RT.

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