Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and p21waf1/cip1. A dynamic exchange of partners.


We addressed the analysis of the physical and functional association ...
We addressed the analysis of the physical and functional association of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein involved in many DNA transactions, with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA repair and interacts with many DNA replication/repair factors. We demonstrated that PARP-1 and PCNA co-immunoprecipitated both from the soluble and the DNA-bound fraction isolated from S-phase-synchronized HeLa cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments with purified proteins further confirmed a physical association between PARP-1 and PCNA. To investigate the effect of this association on PARP-1 activity, an assay based on the incorporation of radioactive NAD was performed. Conversely, the effect of PARP-1 on PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis was assessed by a DNA polymerase delta assay. A marked inhibition of both reactions was found. Unexpectedly, PARP-1 activity also decreased in the presence of p21waf1/cip1. By pull-down experiments, we provided the first evidence for an association between PARP-1 and p21, which involves the C-terminal part of p21 protein. This association was further demonstrated to occur also in vivo in MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine)-treated human fibroblasts. These observations suggest that PARP-1 and p21 could cooperate in regulating the functions of PCNA during DNA replication/repair.




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