Non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoxalinylethylpyridylthioureas as potent antiviral agents.


New heterocyclic derivatives of ethylpyridylthiourea, quinoxalinylethylpyridylthiourea (QXPT) and analogues, inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and prevented HIV-1 cytopathogenicity in T4 lymphocytes. Several of these novel non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, with a substituted pyrroloquinoxalinone heteroaromatic skeleton, showed inhibitory activity against wild-type RT as well as against mutant RTs containing the single amino acid substitutions L1001, K103N, V106A, Y1811 and Y188L that was much greater than other non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nevirapine. Maximum potency in enzymatic assays was achieved with a fluoropyrroloquinoxaline skeleton linked to the ethylpyridylthiourea moiety (FQXPT). In cell-based assays on different cell lines and on human monocyte-macrophages, 6-FQXPT exhibited EC50 values in the nanomolar range, with a promising selectivity index. Moreover, 6-FQXPT showed synergistic antiviral activity with zidovudine.




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