Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to the high-mannose binding agents cyanovirin N and concanavalin A.

Abstract:

Due to the biological significance of the carbohydrate component of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) glycoproteins in viral pathogenesis, the glycosylation step constitutes an attractive target for anti-HIV therapy. Cyanovirin N (CV-N), which specifically targets the high-mannose (HM) glycans on gp120, has been identified as a potent HIV-1 entry inhibitor. Concanavalin A (ConA) represents another mannose-binding lectin, although it has a lower specificity for HM glycans than that of CV-N. For the present study, we selected CV-N- and ConA-resistant HIV-1 strains in the presence of CV-N and ConA, respectively. Both resistant strains exhibited a variety of mutations eliminating N-linked glycans within gp120. Strains resistant to CV-N or ConA displayed high levels of cross-resistance towards one another. The N-glycan at position 302 was eliminated in both of the lectin-resistant strains. However, the elimination of this glycan alone by site-directed mutagenesis was not sufficient to render HIV-1 resistant to CV-N or ConA, suggesting that HIV-1 needs to mutate several N-glycans to become resistant to these lectins. Both strains also demonstrated clear cross-resistance towards the carbohydrate-dependent monoclonal antibody 2G12. In contrast, the selected strains did not show a reduced susceptibility towards the nonlectin entry inhibitors AMD3100 and enfuvirtide or towards reverse transcriptase or protease inhibitors. Recombination of the mutated gp160 genes of the strains resistant to CV-N or ConA into a wild-type background fully reproduced the (cross-)resistance profiles of the originally selected strains, pointing to the impact of the N-glycan mutations on the phenotypic resistance profiles of both selected strains.

Polymerases:

Topics:

Status:

new topics/pols set partial results complete validated

Results:

No results available for this paper.

Entry validated by:

Log in to edit reference All References

Using Polbase tables:

Sorting:

Tables may be sorted by clicking on any of the column titles. A second click reverses the sort order. <Ctrl> + click on the column titles to sort by more than one column (e.g. family then name).

Filtering:

It is also possible to filter the table by typing into the search box above the table. This will instantly hide lines from the table that do not contain your search text.