Potent and selective inhibition of HIV and SIV by prostratin interacting with viral entry.


Prostratin, a non-tumour promoting phorbol ester, exhibit a potent anti-HIV activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the antiviral mechanism of prostratin is not well defined. In the present study, we report that prostratin exhibits potent antiviral activity against different strains of HIV-1 (subtypes B and D), a clinical HIV isolate (L1), HIV-2 (ROD and EHO) and SIV (MAC251) with EC50-values ranging from 0.02-0.09 microg/ml. Prostratin was equally active against HIV strains resistant to the polyanionic binding inhibitor dextran sulphate, the fusion inhibitor T-20 (enfuvirtide), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs). In contrast, prostratin lost 4.4- and 6.8-fold of its effect against the HIV strains resistant to AMD3100 and the quaternary ammonium salt QAS10+, respectively. As shown by time-of-addition experiments, prostratin needs to be present at the time of viral adsorption to exert its antiviral activity. We selected an HIV strain (NL4.3/PROS) resistant to prostratin in MT-4 cells. The sensitivity of NL4.3/PROS towards prostratin, dextran sulphate and QAS10+ was reduced by 3.2, 4.1 and >50-fold, respectively. However, NL4.3/ PROS was still sensitive to AMD3100, T-20, NRTIs (zidovudine and nevirapine) and a PI (ritonavir). Recombination of the gp160-gene of the NL4.3/PROS strain in a NL4.3 wild-type molecular clone fully rescued its phenotypic resistance. DNA sequencing of the NL4.3/PROS strain revealed mutations throughout the gp120 gene previously associated with resistance towards other HIV entry inhibitors. We concluded that prostratin inhibits the entry step of the replication cycle of HIV by interacting with a cellular target necessary for viral entry.




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