Kinetics of inhibition of endogenous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription by 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate, tetrahydroimidazo-[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-thion e, and 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine derivatives.

Abstract:

Recently, tetrahydroimidazo-[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO) and 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) compounds have been shown to be potent, selective, and specific inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro. They interact with the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 in a way different from that of previously studied reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. We established an endogenous RT assay, starting from intact HIV-1 virions. This assay mimics the reverse transcription process in the HIV-infected cell more closely than RT assays with artificial templates. We investigated the inhibition of endogenous HIV-1 reverse transcription by the TIBO derivative (+)-(S)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-5-methyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)imidazo [4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-thione (R-82150) in comparison with the HEPT derivative 5-ethyl-1-ethoxymethyl-6-(phenylthio)uracil (E-EPU) and 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate. The kinetics and characteristics of RT inhibition by TIBO in the endogenous RT assay were similar to those found previously for the exogenous RT assay (following addition of exogenous template/primer); thus, RT inhibition by TIBO was specific for HIV-1 and the extent of RT inhibition was dependent on which of the four substrates (dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP) was present in limited concentrations. Of the three enzymatic activities, RNA-dependent DNA polymerization was preferentially inhibited, and inhibition was not competitive with respect to the natural substrates. HIV-1 RT behaved as an allosteric enzyme, which means that positive cooperativity for binding of the substrate was observed. TIBO behaved as an allosteric inhibitor by causing a concentration-dependent decrease in this cooperativity.

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