Marked inhibitory activity of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 when combined with (-)2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected CEM cells were ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected CEM cells were treated (as single agents or in combination) with (minus)-2', 3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) and the following HIV-1-specific non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs): 2', 5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5'-(4'-amino-1',2'-oxathi ole)-2',2'-dioxide derivative of 3-methylthymidine (TSAO-m3T), the thiocarboxanilides UC10 and UC42, bis(heteroaryl)piperazine (BHAP) derivative U90152, and the 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) derivative 5-isopropyl-1-ethoxymethyl-6-benzyluracil (MKC-442). When used individually, the compounds led to the emergence of HIV-1 strains containing the following mutations in the RT: Glu138 to lysine for TSAO-m3T, Met184 to valine for 3TC, Lys103 to threonine/asparagine for the thiocarboxanilides, and Tyr181 to cysteine for BHAP and MKC-442. When 3TC was combined with TSAO-m3T, UC10, UC42, BHAP, or MKC-442, breakthrough of virus was markedly delayed or even suppressed. For these drug combinations, the concentrations of the individual drugs could be lowered by > or = 25-50-fold to suppress virus breakthrough compared with the individual use of the compounds. The concomitant presence of the Lys138 and Ile/Val184 mutations was found in the RT of the mutant viruses that emerged with combination therapy of the lowest concentrations of 3TC with either the lowest concentrations of TSAO-m3T or UC10 (approximately 0.5-3-fold the EC50 value). These virus strains retained high sensitivity to other NNRTIs such as BHAP or HEPT. The virus mutants that arose in the presence of combinations of the lowest concentrations of 3TC with either BHAP or HEPT predominantly contained the Cys181 mutation in the RT. In one case, the Ile181 mutation was found. The latter mutations, particularly the Ile181 mutation, resulted in markedly decreased sensitivity to the NNRTIs but not to 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine or 3TC.




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