Kinetic Analysis of the Bypass of a Bulky DNA Lesion Catalyzed by Human Y-family DNA Polymerases.

Abstract:

1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), a mutagen and potential carcinogen, is the most abundant nitro polyaromatic hydrocarbon in diesel exhaust, which reacts with DNA to form predominantly N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene (dG<sup>AP</sup>). If not repaired, this DNA lesion is presumably bypassed in vivo by any of human Y-family DNA polymerases kappa (hPolκ), iota (hPolι), eta (hPolη), and Rev1 (hRev1). Our running start assays demonstrated that each of these enzymes was indeed capable of traversing a site-specifically placed dG<sup>AP</sup> on a synthetic DNA template but hRev1 was stopped after lesion bypass. The time required to bypass 50% of the dG<sup>AP</sup> sites (t<sub>50</sub></sup>bypass</sup>) encountered by hPolη, hPolκ and hPolι was determined to be 2.5 s, 4.1 s, and 106.5 s, respectively. The efficiency order of catalyzing translesion synthesis of dGAP (hPolη > hPolκ > hPolι >> hRev1) is the same as the order for these human Y-family enzymes to elongate undamaged DNA. Although hPolη bypassed dG<sup>AP</sup> efficiently, replication by hPolκ and hPolι was strongly stalled at the lesion site and at a site immediately downstream from dG<sup>AP</sup>. By employing pre-steady state kinetic methods, a kinetic basis was established for polymerase pausing at these DNA template sites. Besides efficiency of bypass, the fidelity of those low-fidelity polymerases at these pause sites was also significantly decreased. Thus, if the translesion DNA synthesis of dG<sup>AP</sup> in vivo is catalyzed by a human Y-family DNA polymerase, e.g. hPolη, the process is certainly mutagenic.

Polymerases:

Topics:

Nucleotide Analogs / Template Lesions

Status:

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