Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of [AZT]-[TSAO-T] and [AZT]-[HEPT] dimers as potential multifunctional inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

Abstract:

In an attempt to combine the HIV-inhibitory capacity of 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside (ddN) analogues and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTI), we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity several dimers of the general formula [ddN]-(CH2)n-[NNRTI]. These dimers combine in their structure a ddN such as AZT and a NNRTI such as TSAO-T and HEPT linked through an appropriate spacer between the N-3 of the thymine base of both compounds. The [TSAO-T]-(CH2)n-[AZT] dimers proved markedly inhibitory to HIV-1. Also, if AZT was replaced by thymidine in the dimer molecules, potent anti-HIV-1 activity was observed. However, although the compounds proved inhibitory to HIV-1, they were less potent inhibitors than the parent compounds from which they were derived. None of the dimers were endowed with anti-HIV-2 activity. In contrast with the TSAO-T monomers, none of the TSAO-T-containing dimers proved markedly cytotoxic to the cells. There was a clear trend toward decreased antiviral potency with lengthening the methylene spacer in the [TSAO-T]-(CH2)n-[AZT] dimers.

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