Structure-based interpretation of missense mutations in Y-family DNA polymerases and their implications for polymerase function and lesion bypass.

DNA repair (2002), Volume 1, Page 343

Abstract:

Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of error-prone lesion bypass has changed dramatically in the past few years. The concept that the key participants in the mutagenic process were accessory proteins that somehow modified the ability of the cell's main replicase to facilitate bypass of normally blocking lesions has been replaced with one in which the replicase is displaced by a polymerase specialized in lesion bypass. The participants in this process remain the same, only their function has been reassigned. What was once known as the UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of mutagenesis proteins, is now known as the Y-family of DNA polymerases. Quite remarkably, within the space of 3 years, the field has advanced from the initial discovery of intrinsic polymerase function, to the determination of the tertiary structures of several Y-family DNA polymerases.A key to determining the biochemical properties of each DNA polymerase is through structure-function studies that result in the site-specific substitution of particular amino acids at critical sites within each DNA polymerase. However, we should not forget the power of genetic selection that allows us to identify residues within each polymerase that are generated by "random mutagenesis" and which are important for both a gain or loss of function in vivo. In this review, we discuss the structural ramifications of several missense mutations previously identified in various Y-family DNA polymerase and speculate on how each amino acid substitution might modify the enzymatic activity of the respective polymerase or possibly perturb protein-protein interactions necessary for efficient translesion replication in vivo.

Polymerases:

Topics:

Historical Protein Properties (MW, pI, ...), Structure and Structure/Function

Status:

new topics/pols set partial results complete validated

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