The fidelity of DNA synthesis by eukaryotic replicative and translesion synthesis polymerases.

Abstract:

In their seminal publication describing the structure of the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick wrote what may be one of the greatest understatements in the scientific literature, namely that "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material." Half a century later, we more fully appreciate what a huge challenge it is to replicate six billion nucleotides with the accuracy needed to stably maintain the human genome over many generations. This challenge is perhaps greater than was realized 50 years ago, because subsequent studies have revealed that the genome can be destabilized not only by environmental stresses that generate a large number and variety of potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions in DNA but also by various sequence motifs of normal DNA that present challenges to replication. Towards a better understanding of the many determinants of genome stability, this chapter reviews the fidelity with which undamaged and damaged DNA is copied, with a focus on the eukaryotic B- and Y-family DNA polymerases, and considers how this fidelity is achieved.

Polymerases:

Topics:

Fidelity, Exonuclease Activity

Status:

new topics/pols set partial results complete validated

Results:

Polymerase Reference Property Result Context
Human Pol eta McCulloch SD2008 Frameshift Error Rate 0.0024 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Human Pol eta McCulloch SD2008 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.035 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Sce Pol eta McCulloch SD2008 Frameshift Error Rate 0.00093 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Sce Pol eta McCulloch SD2008 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.0095 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Sce Pol delta McCulloch SD2008 Frameshift Error Rate 1.3E-05 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Sce Pol delta McCulloch SD2008 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 1.3E-05 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Human Pol gamma McCulloch SD2008 3-5' Exonuclease (proofreading) Yes
Human Pol gamma McCulloch SD2008 Frameshift Error Rate 1.2E-06 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Human Pol gamma McCulloch SD2008 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 1E-05 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Human Pol kappa McCulloch SD2008 Frameshift Error Rate 0.0018 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay
Human Pol kappa McCulloch SD2008 Nucleotide Substitution Rate 0.0058 errors/bp Technique: M13mp2 forward mutation assay

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