T4

From bacteriophage T4 (aliases:phage T4, bacteriophage polymerase T4)
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Welcome to the Polymerase Page

This page presents all the information in Polbase for T4.

Mutants:

At the top of the page you'll find a map of all positions of known mutants. Text links to mutants and digestion products are listed in the Mutants section.

Structures/Sequence:

If available, a representative structure is displayed at the upper right. All known structures are listed in the Structures section.

External links:

Polbase polymerases are linked to UniProt and Genbank where possible. The UniProt search link directs you to a pre-constructed UniProt search containing relevant terms.

References:

All references that refer to this Polymerase are listed with their topics and paper's title in the References table.

Results:

All the results for this polymerase can be examined by following the "Results" link at the bottom of the page.

Help icons:

The show help symbol in the upper-right corner of the page links to this help text. The question mark icon is used everywhere to indicate that help is available.

T4 is a family B enzyme from bacteriophage T4.

The phage T4 DNA polymerase was the first DNA polymerase demonstrated to be essential for DNA replication in vivo.  The purified DNA polymerase, like all DNA polymerases, replicates DNA in the 5' to 3' direction; the T4 DNA polymerase also has a 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity that increases the fidelity of DNA replication.  The T4 DNA polymerase replication complex was one of the first to be reconstituted in vitro.  Structures of the T4-related RB69 DNA polymerase are useful models for family B DNA polymerases.

 

Selected Properties for T4:

3'-5' exo activity 5'-3' exo activity Frameshift Rate Substitution Rate General Error Rate
Yes (9) No (4) 3.0e-07-1.2e-06 errors/bp (2) 1.0e-08-2.0e-04 errors/bp (8) 2.0e-08 errors/bp (1)
Year Authors Title Results by property
2013 Babho Devadoss, Irene Lee, Anthony J Berdis Spectroscopic analysis of polymerizat...
2011 Brian A Kelch, Debora L Makino, Mike E O'Donnell, John Kuriyan How a DNA polymerase clamp loader ope...
2011 Chen Song, Chen Zhang, Meiping Zhao Rapid and sensitive detection of DNA ...
2010 Vasiliy M Petrov, Swarnamala Ratnayaka, Jim D Karam Genetic insertions and diversificatio...
2010 Linda J Reha-Krantz DNA polymerase proofreading: Multiple...
2009 Sri Ranjini Arumugam, Tae-Hee Lee, Stephen J Benkovic Investigation of stoichiometry of T4 ...
2009 Maria Manosas, Michelle M Spiering, Zhihao Zhuang, Stephen J Benkovic, Vincent Croquette Coupling DNA unwinding activity with ...
2009 Anna Trzemecka, Danuta Płochocka, Anna Bebenek Different behaviors in vivo of mutati... Kd,All properties
2009 Linda J Reha-Krantz The use of 2-aminopurine fluorescence...
2009 Akira Tachibana, Kazuo Tohiguchi, Takayuki Ueno, Yuichi Setogawa, Ayako Harada, Toshizumi Tanabe Preparation of long sticky ends for u...
2008 J Gury, L Zinger, L Gielly, P Taberlet, RA Geremia Exonuclease activity of proofreading ...
2008 Scott W Nelson, Ravindra Kumar, Stephen J Benkovic RNA primer handoff in bacteriophage T...
2008 Linda J Reha-Krantz Recent patents of gene sequences rela...
2008 Usharani Subuddhi, Matthew Hogg, Linda J Reha-Krantz Use of 2-aminopurine fluorescence to ...
2008 Gary E Schultz, John W Drake Templated mutagenesis in bacteriophag...
2007 Dina Tleugabulova, Linda J Reha-Krantz Probing DNA polymerase-DNA interactio...
2007 Diana Vineyard, Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelly, Irene Lee, Anthony J Berdis Optimization of non-natural nucleotid...
2007 Anthony J Berdis, David McCutcheon The use of non-natural nucleotides to...
2007 Scott W Nelson, Stephen J Benkovic The T4 phage UvsW protein contains bo...
2007 Nancy G Nossal, Alexander M Makhov, Paul D Chastain, Charles E Jones, Jack D Griffith Architecture of the bacteriophage T4 ... Extension from RNA primer,3-5' exo,5-3' exo,All properties
2007 Elizabeth Fidalgo da Silva, Linda J Reha-Krantz DNA polymerase proofreading: active s... kcat,All properties
2007 Giuseppina Blanca, Emmanuelle Delagoutte, Nicolas Tanguy Le Gac, Neil P Johnson, Giuseppe Baldacci, Giuseppe Villani Accessory proteins assist exonuclease...
2006 R Derike Smiley, Zhihao Zhuang, Stephen J Benkovic, Gordon G Hammes Single-molecule investigation of the ...
2006 Xuemei Zhang, Alison Donnelly, Irene Lee, Anthony J Berdis Rational attempts to optimize non-nat...
2006 Chithra Hariharan, Linda B Bloom, Sandra A Helquist, Eric T Kool, Linda J Reha-Krantz Dynamics of nucleotide incorporation:...
2006 Gary E Schultz, Geraldine T Carver, John W Drake A role for replication repair in the ...
2006 Irene Lee, Anthony J Berdis Fluorescent analysis of translesion D...
2006 John W Drake Chaos and order in spontaneous mutation.
2006 Matthew Hogg, Wendy Cooper, Linda J Reha-Krantz, Susan S Wallace Kinetics of error generation in homol...
2005 Jon P Anderson, Bernhard Angerer, Lawrence A Loeb Incorporation of reporter-labeled nuc... Cloned or native,Tagged,Full length or truncated,3-5' exo,5-3' exo,Application name,Incorporation of non-standard nucleotides,All properties
2005 Jun Xi, Zhiquan Zhang, Zhihao Zhuang, Jingsong Yang, Michelle M Spiering, Gordon G Hammes, Stephen J Benkovic Interaction between the T4 helicase l...
2005 Chithra Hariharan, Linda J Reha-Krantz Using 2-aminopurine fluorescence to d... Methods Featured,All properties
2004 Jingsong Yang, Zhihao Zhuang, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, Michael A Trakselis, Stephen J Benkovic The dynamic processivity of the T4 DN... Full length or truncated,Kd,Vmax,All properties
2004 Vasiliy M Petrov, Jim D Karam Diversity of structure and function o...
2004 Charles E Jones, Timothy C Mueser, Nancy G Nossal Bacteriophage T4 32 protein is requir...
2004 Wen Xin, Da-Wei Huang, Yi-Ming Zhang, Liang Geng DNA mutagenesis using T4 DNA polymera...
2004 Nicolas Tanguy Le Gac, Emmanuelle Delagoutte, Matthieu Germain, Giuseppe Villani Inactivation of the 3'-5' exonuclease...
2004 C X Wang, E Zakharova, Jinming Li, Catherine M Joyce, Jianhong Wang, William H Konigsberg Pre-steady-state kinetics of RB69 DNA... kcat,All properties
2003 Laura Tsujikawa, Michael Weinfield, Linda J Reha-Krantz Differences in replication of a DNA t...
2003 Faoud T Ishmael, Michael A Trakselis, Stephen J Benkovic Protein-protein interactions in the b...
2003 Emmanuelle Delagoutte, Peter H von Hippel Function and assembly of the bacterio...
2003 S Ikeda, H Imai, M Yamada Apoptosis in cumulus cells during in ...
2003 Jingsong Yang, Michael A Trakselis, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, Stephen J Benkovic The application of a minicircle subst...
2003 Edmunds Z Reineks, Anthony J Berdis Evaluating the effects of enhanced pr...
2002 Vasiliy M Petrov, San-San Ng, Jim D Karam Protein determinants of RNA binding b...
2002 Vasiliy M Petrov, Jim D Karam RNA determinants of translational ope...
2002 Farid A Kadyrov, John W Drake Characterization of DNA synthesis cat...
2002 David Jeruzalmi, Mike E O'Donnell, John Kuriyan Clamp loaders and sliding clamps.
2002 Giuseppe Villani, Nicolas Tanguy Le Gac, Luc Wasungu, Dominique Y Burnouf, Robert P P Fuchs, Paul E Boehmer Effect of manganese on in vitro repli...
2002 Vineeta Khare, Kristin A Eckert The proofreading 3'-->5' exonuclease ... Extension from RNA primer,3-5' exo,5-3' exo,All properties
2002 Elizabeth Fidalgo da Silva, Subhrangsu S Mandal, Linda J Reha-Krantz Using 2-aminopurine fluorescence to m...
2002 Megan J Davey, David Jeruzalmi, John Kuriyan, Mike E O'Donnell Motors and switches: AAA+ machines wi...
2002 Subhrangsu S Mandal, Elizabeth Fidalgo da Silva, Linda J Reha-Krantz Using 2-aminopurine fluorescence to d...
2001 Isao Kuraoka, P Robins, Chikahide Masutani, Fumio Hanaoka, Didier Gasparutto, Jean Cadet, Richard D Wood, T Lindahl Oxygen free radical damage to DNA. Tr...
2001 Anthony J Berdis Dynamics of translesion DNA synthesis...
2001 Emmanuelle Delagoutte, Peter H von Hippel Molecular mechanisms of the functiona...
2001 Michael A Trakselis, M U Mayer, Faoud T Ishmael, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, Stephen J Benkovic Dynamic protein interactions in the b...
2001 Farid A Kadyrov, John W Drake Conditional coupling of leading-stran...
2001 S C Alley, Michael A Trakselis, M U Mayer, Faoud T Ishmael, A D Jones, Stephen J Benkovic Building a replisome solution structu...
2001 Michael A Trakselis, S C Alley, E Abel-Santos, Stephen J Benkovic Creating a dynamic picture of the sli...
2001 T C Lin, C X Wang, Catherine M Joyce, William H Konigsberg 3'-5' Exonucleolytic activity of DNA ...
2001 Nancy G Nossal, K C Dudas, K N Kreuzer Bacteriophage T4 proteins replicate p...
2001 M Bhagwat, Nancy G Nossal Bacteriophage T4 RNase H removes both... RNase H,All properties
2001 M I Hadjimarcou, Robert J Kokoska, Thomas D Petes, Linda J Reha-Krantz Identification of a mutant DNA polyme...
2000 E F da Silva, Linda J Reha-Krantz Dinucleotide repeat expansion catalyz...
2000 I Moarefi, David Jeruzalmi, J Turner, Mike E O'Donnell, John Kuriyan Crystal structure of the DNA polymera...
2000 S C Alley, E Abel-Santos, Stephen J Benkovic Tracking sliding clamp opening and cl...
2000 Andrey R Pavlov, Jim D Karam Nucleotide-sequence-specific and non-...
2000 Paul D Chastain, Alexander M Makhov, Nancy G Nossal, Jack D Griffith Analysis of the Okazaki fragment dist...
1999 E Elisseeva, Subhrangsu S Mandal, Linda J Reha-Krantz Mutational and pH studies of the 3' -... kcat,All properties
1999 Zafer Hatahet, Mian Zhou, Linda J Reha-Krantz, Hiroshi Ide, S W Morrical, Susan S Wallace In vitro selection of sequence contex...
1999 D Canceill, Enrique Viguera, S Dusko Ehrlich Replication slippage of different DNA...
1999 S C Alley, A D Jones, P Soumillion, Stephen J Benkovic The carboxyl terminus of the bacterio...
1998 J W Drake, B Charlesworth, D Charlesworth, J F Crow Rates of spontaneous mutation.
1998 Nancy G Nossal A new look at old mutants of T4 DNA p...
1998 P Keohavong, R Shukla, A Melacrinos, B W Day, Linda J Reha-Krantz Effects of bulky polycyclic aromatic ...
1998 F J Wang, L S Ripley The spectrum of acridine resistant mu...
1998 L S Yeh, Tien Hsu, Jim D Karam Divergence of a DNA replication gene ...
1998 P Soumillion, D J Sexton, Stephen J Benkovic Clamp subunit dissociation dictates b...
1998 J M Beechem, M R Otto, Linda B Bloom, R Eritja, Linda J Reha-Krantz, Myron F Goodman Exonuclease-polymerase active site pa... Methods Featured,All properties
1998 M R Otto, Linda B Bloom, Myron F Goodman, J M Beechem Stopped-flow fluorescence study of pr... Methods Featured,All properties
1998 D J Sexton, B F Kaboord, Anthony J Berdis, T E Carver, Stephen J Benkovic Dissecting the order of bacteriophage...
1998 P Wu, N Nossal, Stephen J Benkovic Kinetic characterization of a bacteri...
1998 R P Baker, Linda J Reha-Krantz Identification of a transient excisio...
1998 Linda J Reha-Krantz Regulation of DNA polymerase exonucle...
1998 Zafer Hatahet, Mian Zhou, Linda J Reha-Krantz, S W Morrical, Susan S Wallace In search of a mutational hotspot.
1998 Linda J Reha-Krantz, L A Marquez, E Elisseeva, R P Baker, Linda B Bloom, H B Dunford, Myron F Goodman The proofreading pathway of bacteriop...
1998 L C Kroutil, M W Frey, B F Kaboord, Thomas A Kunkel, Stephen J Benkovic Effect of accessory proteins on T4 DN... 3-5' exo,5-3' exo,Frameshift Error Rate,Nucleotide Substitution Rate,All properties
1998 L A Smith, John W Drake Aspects of the ultraviolet photobiolo...
1998 Myron F Goodman, K D Fygenson DNA polymerase fidelity: from genetic...
1997 P Pietroni, M C Young, G J Latham, Peter H von Hippel Structural analyses of gp45 sliding c...
1997 C C Wang, A Pavlov, Jim D Karam Evolution of RNA-binding specificity ...
1997 G J Latham, D J Bacheller, P Pietroni, Peter H von Hippel Structural analyses of gp45 sliding c...
1997 Holly Kloos Dressman, C C Wang, Jim D Karam, John W Drake Retention of replication fidelity by ...
1997 D J Sexton, Anthony J Berdis, Stephen J Benkovic Assembly and disassembly of DNA polym...
1997 T E Carver, D J Sexton, Stephen J Benkovic Dissociation of bacteriophage T4 DNA ... Cloned or native,Full length or truncated,Processivity,All properties
1997 Anthony J Berdis, Stephen J Benkovic Mechanism of bacteriophage T4 DNA hol...
1997 Myron F Goodman Hydrogen bonding revisited: geometric...
1997 D Kong, Nancy G Nossal, Charles C Richardson Role of the bacteriophage T7 and T4 s...
1997 L D Goodrich, T C Lin, E K Spicer, C Jones, William H Konigsberg Residues at the carboxy terminus of T...
1997 G J Latham, D J Bacheller, P Pietroni, Peter H von Hippel Structural analyses of gp45 sliding c...
1996 Linda J Reha-Krantz, C Wong Selection of bacteriophage T4 antimut...
1996 L A Marquez, Linda J Reha-Krantz Using 2-aminopurine fluorescence and ...
1996 R D Schrock, B Alberts Processivity of the gene 41 DNA helic... Full length or truncated,Processivity,Vmax,All properties
1996 A K Abdus Sattar, T C Lin, C Jones, William H Konigsberg Functional consequences and exonuclea... KM,kcat,All properties
1996 Jianhong Wang, Pengbo Yu, T C Lin, William H Konigsberg, Thomas A Steitz Crystal structures of an NH2-terminal...
1996 Linda J Reha-Krantz, R L Nonay, R S Day, Samuel H Wilson Replication of O6-methylguanine-conta...
1996 John W Drake The antievolutionary component of ant...
1996 D J Sexton, T E Carver, Anthony J Berdis, Stephen J Benkovic Protein-protein and protein-DNA inter...
1996 Anthony J Berdis, P Soumillion, Stephen J Benkovic The carboxyl terminus of the bacterio...
1996 F Dong, S E Weitzel, Peter H von Hippel A coupled complex of T4 DNA replicati...
1996 M W Frey, S T Frey, W D Horrocks, B F Kaboord, Stephen J Benkovic Elucidation of the metal-binding prop...
1995 M K Reddy, S E Weitzel, S S Daube, Thale C Jarvis, Peter H von Hippel Using macromolecular crowding agents ...
1995 B Liu, B M Alberts Head-on collision between a DNA repli...
1995 M W Frey, L C Sowers, David P Millar, Stephen J Benkovic The nucleotide analog 2-aminopurine a...
1995 S Creighton, Myron F Goodman Gel kinetic analysis of DNA polymeras... Nucleotide Substitution Rate,All properties
1995 Linda J Reha-Krantz Learning about DNA polymerase functio...
1995 C C Wang, L S Yeh, Jim D Karam Modular organization of T4 DNA polyme...
1995 S A Stocki, R L Nonay, Linda J Reha-Krantz Dynamics of bacteriophage T4 DNA poly...
1995 V L Kaiser, L S Ripley DNA nick processing by exonuclease an...
1995 Nancy G Nossal, D M Hinton, L J Hobbs, P Spacciapoli Purification of bacteriophage T4 DNA ...
1995 Parvathi Chary, R Stephen Lloyd In vitro replication by prokaryotic a...
1995 B F Kaboord, Stephen J Benkovic Accessory proteins function as matchm...
1995 Linda J Reha-Krantz Use of genetic analyses to probe stru...
1994 P Spacciapoli, Nancy G Nossal A single mutation in bacteriophage T4... Cloned or native,Full length or truncated,Specific Activity,3-5' exo,All properties
1994 Linda J Reha-Krantz, R L Nonay Motif A of bacteriophage T4 DNA polym...
1994 P Hentosh, P Grippo Template 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine m...
1994 P Spacciapoli, Nancy G Nossal Interaction of DNA polymerase and DNA...
1994 Linda B Bloom, M R Otto, R Eritja, Linda J Reha-Krantz, Myron F Goodman, J M Beechem Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of ...
1994 M E Santos, J W Drake Rates of spontaneous mutation in bact...
1994 The Bacteriophage T4 DNA Replication ...
1994 N N Khan, Linda J Reha-Krantz, George E Wright Analysis of inhibitors of bacteriopha...
1994 T C Lin, G Karam, William H Konigsberg Isolation, characterization, and kine... 3-5' exo,KM,kcat,All properties
1994 V Gopalakrishnan, Stephen J Benkovic Spatial relationship between polymera...
1994 Andrey R Pavlov, Jim D Karam Binding specificity of T4 DNA polymer...
1994 Genetic dissection of T4 DNA polymera...
1994 K J Hacker, B M Alberts The rapid dissociation of the T4 DNA ...
1994 K J Hacker, B M Alberts The slow dissociation of the T4 DNA p... Cloned or native,Full length or truncated,Processivity,3-5' exo,5-3' exo,All properties
1993 John W Drake General antimutators are improbable.
1993 M M Waye Use of M13 ping-pong vectors and T4 D...
1993 M W Frey, Nancy G Nossal, T L Capson, Stephen J Benkovic Construction and characterization of ...
1993 Linda J Reha-Krantz, R L Nonay, S Stocki Bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutat...
1993 B Liu, M L Wong, R L Tinker, E P Geiduschek, B M Alberts The DNA replication fork can pass RNA...
1993 B F Kaboord, Stephen J Benkovic Rapid assembly of the bacteriophage T...
1993 H Kong, R B Kucera, William E Jack Characterization of a DNA polymerase ... Processivity,KM,All properties
1993 Linda J Reha-Krantz, R L Nonay Genetic and biochemical studies of ba...
1993 M K Reddy, S E Weitzel, Peter H von Hippel Assembly of a functional replication ...
1992 DNA Replication
1992 J L Kuijper, K M Wiren, L D Mathies, C L Gray, F S Hagen Functional cloning vectors for use in...
1992 M K Reddy, S E Weitzel, Peter H von Hippel Processive proofreading is intrinsic ...
1992 Linda J Reha-Krantz Are there highly conserved DNA polyme...
1992 T L Capson, J A Peliska, B F Kaboord, M W Frey, C Lively, M Dahlberg, Stephen J Benkovic Kinetic characterization of the polym...
1992 M C Young, M K Reddy, Peter H von Hippel Structure and function of the bacteri...
1992 Nancy G Nossal Protein-protein interactions at a DNA...
1991 M M Munn, B M Alberts The T4 DNA polymerase accessory prote...
1991 M M Munn, B M Alberts DNA footprinting studies of the compl...
1991 N N Khan, George E Wright, Neal C Brown The molecular mechanism of inhibition...
1991 M D Andrake, Jim D Karam Mutational analysis of the mRNA opera...
1991 John W Drake A constant rate of spontaneous mutati... Overall Error Rate,All properties
1991 Linda J Reha-Krantz, S Stocki, R L Nonay, E Dimayuga, L D Goodrich, William H Konigsberg, E K Spicer DNA polymerization in the absence of ...
1991 W Y Yap, K N Kreuzer Recombination hotspots in bacteriopha...
1991 T L Capson, Stephen J Benkovic, Nancy G Nossal Protein-DNA cross-linking demonstrate...
1991 Thale C Jarvis, J W Newport, Peter H von Hippel Stimulation of the processivity of th...
1991 S W Morrical, M L Wong, B M Alberts Amplification of snap-back DNA synthe...
1990 S S Wang, V A Zakian Sequencing of Saccharomyces telomeres...
1990 Linda J Reha-Krantz Genetic evidence for two protein doma...
1990 C Tuerk, S Eddy, D Parma, L Gold Autogenous translational operator rec...
1990 A W Stoker Cloning of PCR products after defined...
1990 C Tuerk, L Gold Systematic evolution of ligands by ex...
1990 S W Morrical, B M Alberts The UvsY protein of bacteriophage T4 ...
1990 T A Cha, B M Alberts Effects of the bacteriophage T4 gene ...
1990 C Bonne-Andrea, M L Wong, B M Alberts In vitro replication through nucleoso...
1990 Tien Hsu, Jim D Karam Transcriptional mapping of a DNA repl...
1990 Evolving mutation rates and prospects...
1990 Thale C Jarvis, D M Ring, S S Daube, Peter H von Hippel "Macromolecular crowding": thermodyna...
1989 J Rush, T C Lin, M Quinones, E K Spicer, I Douglas, K R Williams, William H Konigsberg The 44P subunit of the T4 DNA polymer...
1989 J Rush, William H Konigsberg Rapid purification of overexpressed T...
1989 Linda J Reha-Krantz Locations of amino acid substitutions...
1989 P Bedinger, M Munn, B M Alberts Sequence-specific pausing during in v...
1989 P Keohavong, William G Thilly Fidelity of DNA polymerases in DNA am... Nucleotide Substitution Rate,All properties
1989 Katarzyna Bebenek, Thomas A Kunkel The use of native T7 DNA polymerase f...
1989 T A Cha, B M Alberts The bacteriophage T4 DNA replication ...
1989 Thale C Jarvis, L S Paul, J W Hockensmith, Peter H von Hippel Structural and enzymatic studies of t...
1989 R W Richardson, Nancy G Nossal Trypsin cleavage in the COOH terminus...
1988 Linda J Reha-Krantz Amino acid changes coded by bacteriop...
1988 Collection of informative bacteriopha...
1988 P Keohavong, A G Kat, N F Cariello, William G Thilly DNA amplification in vitro using T4 D...
1988 John W Drake Bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase deter...
1988 Hiroshi Ide, Susan S Wallace Dihydrothymidine and thymidine glycol...
1988 Thomas A Kunkel Exonucleolytic proofreading.
1988 E K Spicer, J Rush, C Fung, Linda J Reha-Krantz, Jim D Karam, William H Konigsberg Primary structure of T4 DNA polymeras...
1987 Genetics and biochemical studies of t...
1987 N K Sinha Specificity and efficiency of editing...
1987 Nancy G Nossal, D M Hinton Bacteriophage T4 DNA primase-helicase... Extension from RNA primer,All properties
1987 T C Lin, J Rush, E K Spicer, William H Konigsberg Cloning and expression of T4 DNA poly...
1987 Linda J Reha-Krantz Mutational specificity of a bacteriop...
1986 M C Hu, N Davidson Mapping transcription start points on...
1986 Linda J Reha-Krantz, E M Liesner, S Parmaksizoglu, S Stocki Isolation of bacteriophage T4 DNA pol...
1986 J M Clark, G P Beardsley Thymine glycol lesions terminate chai...
1986 T A Cha, B M Alberts Studies of the DNA helicase-RNA prima... Extension from RNA primer,All properties
1986 T Formosa, B M Alberts DNA synthesis dependent on genetic re...
1986 L S Ripley, A Clark Frameshift mutations produced by prof...
1986 L S Ripley, A Clark, J G deBoer Spectrum of spontaneous frameshift mu... Frameshift Error Rate,All properties
1986 M F Charette, D T Weaver, M L DePamphilis Persistence of DNA synthesis arrest s...
1986 The bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase: ...
1985 Linda J Reha-Krantz, J K Lambert Structure-function studies of the bac...
1985 Masamitsu Yamaguchi, E A Hendrickson, M L DePamphilis DNA primase-DNA polymerase alpha from...
1985 R L Hopkins, Myron F Goodman Ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleosid...
1985 D M Hinton, Lynn L Silver, Nancy G Nossal Bacteriophage T4 DNA replication prot...
1985 K N Kreuzer, B M Alberts A defective phage system reveals bact...
1985 R M Dale, B A McClure, J P Houchins A rapid single-stranded cloning strat...
1985 John Petruska, Myron F Goodman Influence of neighboring bases on DNA...
1985 P W Doetsch, G L Chan, W A Haseltine T4 DNA polymerase (3'-5') exonuclease...
1984 A P Gupta, P A Benkovic, Stephen J Benkovic The effect of the 3',5' thiophosphory...
1984 C V Jongeneel, T Formosa, B M Alberts Purification and characterization of ...
1984 D C Mace, B M Alberts Characterization of the stimulatory e... Processivity,Nucleotide incorporation accessory protein(s),All properties
1984 T C Rowe, K M Tewey, L F Liu Identification of the breakage-reunio...
1984 Thomas A Kunkel, Lawrence A Loeb, Myron F Goodman On the fidelity of DNA replication. T... Processivity,Nucleotide Substitution Rate,All properties
1984 D N Mhaskar, Myron F Goodman On the molecular basis of transition ...
1984 D C Mace, B M Alberts T4 DNA polymerase. Rates and processi...
1984 D C Mace N6-methyldeoxyadenosine 5'-triphospha...
1984 Linda J Reha-Krantz, E M Liesner Mutagenic specificity of a novel T4 D...
1984 Linda J Reha-Krantz, S Parmaksizoglu Effect of temperature on transition a...
1984 M D Topal Molecular mechanisms of chemical muta...
1984 R S Lasken, Myron F Goodman The biochemical basis of 5-bromouraci...
1983 Myron F Goodman, S Keener, S Guidotti, E W Branscomb On the enzymatic basis for mutagenesi...
1983 P Gauss, D H Doherty, L Gold Bacterial and phage mutations that re...
1983 P Bedinger, M Hochstrasser, C V Jongeneel, B M Alberts Properties of the T4 bacteriophage DN...
1983 T Formosa, R L Burke, B M Alberts Affinity purification of bacteriophag...
1983 K C Deen, T A Landers, M Berninger Use of T4 DNA polymerase replacement ...
1983 Mechanism of DNA Replication Catalyze...
1983 P Bedinger, B M Alberts The 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease of... Exonuclease accessory protein(s),All properties
1983 L S Ripley, B W Glickman, N B Shoemaker Mutator versus antimutator activity o...
1983 L S Ripley, N B Shoemaker A major role for bacteriophage T4 DNA...
1982 Bernard Strauss, S Rabkin, D Sagher, P Moore The role of DNA polymerase in base su...
1982 M Venkatesan, Nancy G Nossal Bacteriophage T4 gene 44/62 and gene ...
1982 A Gupta, C DeBrosse, Stephen J Benkovic Template-prime-dependent turnover of ...
1982 P J Romaniuk, F Eckstein A study of the mechanism of T4 DNA po...
1982 A C Roth, Nancy G Nossal, Paul T Englund Rapid hydrolysis of deoxynucleoside t...
1981 Linda J Reha-Krantz, M J Bessman Studies on the biochemical basis of m...
1981 C C Huang, J E Hearst, B M Alberts Two types of replication proteins inc...
1981 R C Miller, E T Young, R H Epstein, H M Krisch, T Mattson, A Bolle Regulation of the synthesis of the T4...
1981 Chin-Chi Liu, B M Alberts Characterization of the DNA-dependent...
1980 M D Topal, S R DiGuiseppi, N K Sinha Molecular basis for substitution muta... KM,All properties
1980 N K Sinha, C F Morris, B M Alberts Efficient in vitro replication of dou... Vmax,Nucleotide incorporation accessory protein(s),All properties
1980 Chin-Chi Liu, B M Alberts Pentaribonucleotides of mixed sequenc... Extension from RNA primer,All properties
1980 U Hibner, B M Alberts Fidelity of DNA replication catalysed...
1980 M D Challberg, Paul T Englund Specific labeling of 3' termini with ...
1980 Nancy G Nossal RNA priming of DNA replication by bac... Extension from RNA primer,All properties
1980 M A Conkling, R E Koch, John W Drake Determination of mutation rates in ba...
1980 C Schroeder, J Jantschak Inhibitor studies on phage T4 wild-ty...
1980 C C Huang, J E Hearst Pauses at positions of secondary stru...
1979 Chin-Chi Liu, R L Burke, U Hibner, J Barry, B Alberts Probing DNA replication mechanisms wi...
1979 C F Morris, L A Moran, B M Alberts Purification of gene 41 protein of ba...
1979 Lynn L Silver, Nancy G Nossal DNA replication by bacteriophage T4 p...
1979 C F Morris, H Hama-Inaba, D Mace, N K Sinha, B Alberts Purification of the gene 43, 44, 45, ...
1979 W M Huang Positive regulation of T-even-phage D...
1979 G Mosig, A Luder, G Garcia, R Dannenberg, S Bock In vivo interactions of genes and pro...
1979 Nancy G Nossal DNA replication with bacteriophage T4...
1979 Nancy G Nossal, B M Peterlin DNA replication by bacteriophage T4 p...
1979 L K Clayton, Myron F Goodman, E W Branscomb, D J Galas Error induction and correction by mut... KM,All properties
1978 J R Piperno, B M Alberts An ATP stimulation of T4 DNA polymera...
1978 J R Piperno, R G Kallen, B M Alberta Analysis of a T4 DNA replication prot...
1978 A Ronen, C Halevy, N Kass Site specificity and variability in t...
1977 J Chao, M Leach, J Karam In vivo functional interaction betwee...
1977 Myron F Goodman, R Hopkins, W C Gore 2-Aminopurine-induced mutagenesis in ...
1977 B Alberts, R Sternglanz Recent excitement in the DNA replicat...
1977 Linda J Reha-Krantz, M J Bessman Studies on the biochemical basis of m...
1977 Myron F Goodman, G M Lee Adriamycin interactions with T4 DNA p...
1977 W E Williams, J W Drake Mutator mutations in bacteriophage T4...
1976 R E Koch, M K McGaw, John W Drake Mutator mutations in bacteriophage T4...
1976 K Y Lo, M J Bessman An antimutator deoxyribonucleic acid ...
1976 F D Gillin, Nancy G Nossal Control of mutation frequency by bact...
1976 F D Gillin, Nancy G Nossal Control of mutation frequency by bact...
1976 K Y Lo, M J Bessman An antimutator deoxyribonucleic acid ... KM,Vmax,All properties
1976 P M Bingham, R H Baltz, L S Ripley, John W Drake Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4:...
1975 R C Miller T4 DNA polymerase (gene 43) is requir...
1975 F D Gillin, Nancy G Nossal T4 DNA polymerase has a lower apparen... KM,Vmax,All properties
1975 C F Morris, N K Sinha, B M Alberts Reconstruction of bacteriophage T4 DN...
1975 L S Ripley Transversion mutagenesis in bacteriop...
1974 Myron F Goodman, M J Bessman, N R Bachur Adriamycin and daunorubicin inhibitio...
1974 I. Robert Lehman T4 DNA polymerase.
1974 Nancy G Nossal DNA synthesis on a double-stranded DN... Nick Extension,All properties
1974 J D Karam, M G Bowles Mutation to overproduction of bacteri...
1974 C F Schnitzlein, I Albrecht, John W Drake Is bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase in...
1974 M J Bessman, N Muzyczka, Myron F Goodman, R L Schnaar Studies on the biochemical basis of s...
1973 M S Hershfield On the role of deoxyribonucleic acid ... Cloned or native,Tagged,Full length or truncated,3-5' exo,All properties
1973 R L Schnaar, N Muzyczka, M J Bessman Utilization of aminopurine deoxynucle...
1973 M S Hershfield, Nancy G Nossal In vitro characterization of a mutato...
1973 Jim D Karam, P V O'Donnell Suppression of amber mutations of bac...
1973 A Panet, J H van de Sande, P C Loewen, H G Khorana, A J Raae, J R Lillehaug, K Kleppe Physical characterization and simulta...
1972 U Ray, L Bartenstein, J W Drake Inactivation of bacteriophage T4 by e...
1972 D Brutlag, Arthur Kornberg Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucle... Vmax,All properties
1972 P V O'Donnell, Jim D Karam On the direction of reading of bacter...
1972 N Muzyczka, R L Poland, M J Bessman Studies on the biochemical basis of s...
1972 N Prashad, J Hosoda Role of genes 46 and 47 in bacterioph...
1972 F A de Vries, C J Swart-Idenburg, A de Waard An analysis of replication errors mad...
1972 W M Huang, I. Robert Lehman On the exonuclease activity of phage ... Cloned or native,Tagged,Full length or truncated,Specific Activity,3-5' exo,Molecular Weight,All properties
1972 M S Hershfield, Nancy G Nossal Hydrolysis of template and newly synt...
1972 M N Swartz, Hiroaki Nakamura, I. Robert Lehman Activation of a defective DNA polymer...
1971 Paul T Englund The initial step of in vitro synthesi...
1971 Nancy G Nossal, M S Hershfield Nuclease activity in a fragment of ba... KM,Vmax,All properties
1971 R E Koch The influence of neighboring base pai...
1971 H Bernstein Reversion of frameshift mutations sti...
1971 J W Drake Some irregularities in the nomenclatu...
1970 R E Koch, John W Drake Cryptic mutants of bacteriophage T4.
1970 B M Alberts, L Frey T4 bacteriophage gene 32: a structura...
1970 R B Kelly, N R Cozzarelli, M P Deutscher, I. Robert Lehman, Arthur Kornberg Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucle... 5-3' exo,All properties
1970 B M Alberts Function of gene 32-protein, a new pr...
1970 John W Drake, E O Greening Suppression of chemical mutagenesis i...
1968 Mehran Goulian, Z J Lucas, Arthur Kornberg Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucle... Full length or truncated,Specific Activity,Strand Displacement,Gap fill,3-5' exo,5-3' exo,Molecular Weight,Percent/Fold Effect,Optimal pH,All properties
1968 M W Baldy Repair and recombination in phage T4....
1968 J F Speyer, D Rosenberg The function of T4 DNA polymerase.
1967 H Bernstein The effect on recombination of mutati...
1967 John W Drake, J McGuire Characteristics of mutations appearin...
1967 N R Cozzarelli, N E Melechen, T M Jovin, Arthur Kornberg Polynucleotide cellulose as a substra...
1966 H R Warner, J E Barnes Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in Es...
1966 J F Speyer, Jim D Karam, A B Lenny On the role of DNA polymerase in base...
1965 A De Waard, A V Paul, I. Robert Lehman The structural gene for deoxyribonucl...
1963 Physiological Studies of Conditional ...
Protein sequence:
DNA sequence:
Name 3'-5' exo activity 5'-3' exo activity Frameshift Rate Substitution Rate General Error Rate
T4 E26K
T4 R29S
T4 D49Y
T4 I50LP424L 2.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 I50T
T4 I50TP424L 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 I50 uplication/A580S
T4 I50iiA580S
T4 I50L 1.0e+02-1.0e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 W69op
T4 G82D 4.5e+01-3.0e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (5)
T4 N84K 1.0e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 A89T 8.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 A89TD363N/Q731S 2.4e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 A89TD363N/Q731Y 1.5e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 A89TD363N 3.8e+00-1.9e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (14)
T4 E98K
T4 D112AD219A
T4 D112A
T4 D112AD324A
T4 D112AE114A/L412M
T4 D112N
T4 D112AE114A No (1) 3.0e+02-3.0e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 E114A
T4 P123L
T4 D131N 1.5e+01-4.5e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 D131G 1.3e+02-2.7e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 G172S
T4 D189A 1.0e+00-4.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 D189AE191A 1.1e+01-3.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 E191A 2.0e+00-6.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 E191AD324G 5.1e+02-1.8e+03 errors/bp, Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 W202AMB
T4 W202S 2.0e-01-1.9e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 W202Q 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W202Y 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W202am
T4 W202SQ386S
T4 W213Q
T4 W213S No (1) 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W213Y 1.5e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W213am
T4 N214A
T4 F218A
T4 D219A No (2) 4.0e-05-7.6e+02 errors/bp, Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (4) 1.2e-05 errors/bp (1)
T4 D219N
T4 D219AD324A 3.1e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 R225H
T4 R226H
T4 K229A
T4 Y254L 7.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Y254G 7.2e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Y254Q 4.7e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Y254K 7.7e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Y254S 3.6e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 G255A 1.1e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 G255SA737V 4.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 G255S 4.8e+01-3.3e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (5)
T4 S256G 3.4e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S256Y 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S256K 1.1e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S256Q 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S256L 1.5e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K257Y 3.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K257S 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K257Q 4.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K257G 6.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K257L 3.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 E288K
T4 G298D 1.7e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K299AY320F
T4 G304D 1.5e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L309P 7.2e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Y317C 4.1e+02-2.1e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (4)
T4 Y320F
T4 Y320FD324A
T4 Y320A
T4 D324A 6.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D324N
T4 D324G 5.6e+01-2.8e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 V325AL340P 2.0e+01-4.2e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (17)
T4 V325A 1.1e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 V325AL340P/Q731am 1.7e+01-4.5e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (8)
T4 R335CP381L
T4 R335CP424L 3.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 R335C 1.0e-02-1.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 R335CP378L 1.3e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D863up/R335C 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L340PQ731am 4.0e+00-2.9e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (8)
T4 L340P 5.5e+01-2.0e+03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (16)
T4 S345F 2.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D863up/S345F 5.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S345P 2.5e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 V355A 5.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D363N 5.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S369A
T4 P378L 5.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 P378H
T4 Q380K 5.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 P381L
T4 Q386Y 2.0e-01-1.2e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 Q386am
T4 Q386S 1.0e+00 errors/bp (1)
T4 Q386K 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q386AMB
T4 Q386AMBW844AMB
T4 E395K 1.4e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D809N
T4 D408A
T4 S411TL412M 6.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S411T
T4 L412I 9.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L412MI417V 2.5e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L412MA737V 2.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L412MP424L 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L412M 7.7e+00-9.2e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (5)
T4 I417V 4.0e-03-1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 P424L 2.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 P424I 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q430K 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q430S 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q430Y 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q430am
T4 P447L 1.3e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 N456TE881K 3.2e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W458K 2.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W458am
T4 W458Q 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W458Y 2.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W458S 5.0e-02-1.4e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 Y460F
T4 Y460H
T4 G466S
T4 Q478H
T4 Q478R
T4 Q478RA488V 1.0e+02-2.7e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (4)
T4 W482S 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W482Q 6.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W482Y 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W482K 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W482am
T4 F487L
T4 K557A
T4 L567F
T4 R573C
T4 R578op 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 N579L
T4 Q592amW844am
T4 Q592S 1.0e-02-1.3e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 Q592K 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q592am
T4 W593am
T4 W593Y 7.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W593S 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W593AMB
T4 W593K 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W593Q 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 G652el/K653G
T4 C668S
T4 M671I
T4 C687S
T4 G694SQ731Y
T4 G694S 3.0e+00-2.7e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (5)
T4 G694SQ731S 1.2e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 K702SK705A
T4 M725I
T4 M725V
T4 Q730am
T4 Q730K 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q730Y 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q730AMB
T4 Q730S 1.0e-03-1.4e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 Q731K 1.0e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 Q731S 1.0e-03-1.3e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (3)
T4 Q731am 1.0e-01-2.2e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (6)
T4 Q731Y 1.0e-02-1.5e-02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (2)
T4 A737VL771F
T4 A737V Yes (1) 1.3e-01-2.2e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (9) 2.0e-03-9.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (5) 1.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 E743K 1.1e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 S756P 1.3e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L771F Yes (1) 3.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L771H 8.0e+00 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 A777V 1.8e-01-1.3e+02 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (9)
T4 C798S
T4 M827I
T4 C841S
T4 A843V
T4 W844Y 1.0e-01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 W844am
T4 W844S 2.0e-03 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D863 uplication 1.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D863 uplication 1.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 D863 uplication 1.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 F868S
T4 C880S
T4 N881
T4 [L771+V] 2.2e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L56
T4 L141
T4 CB121
T4 N895
T4 [L771+D] 2.9e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 257[KEIYS]uplication
T4 271[L]uplication 7.4e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 N892
T4 64[KD]uplication 5.0e+01 Mutation frequency (relative to WT) (1)
T4 L98
T4 tsA58
T4 K653Δ
T4 N698
T4 N388
T4 N887
Entry contributed by: Linda J Reha-Krantz

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